Using the techniques for gender selection more than for the medical reasons is still controversial.
If they were available with no limitations, that might lead to gender bias or imbalance in gender ratio.
There are other reasons for gender selection beside personal preference, such as:
– Reducing the chance of diseases related to gender.
– Family balance.
These techniques still need more studies and research.
Parents should be aware that there is a possibility of misdiagnosis and no guarantee to have a specific gender.
The gene with chromosome XY is male.
The gene with chromosome XX is female.
Gender selection techniques:
1. IVF with PGT (Pre-Implantation Genetic testing):
a. Eggs are collected from the mother and sperms are collected from the father.
b. Fertilization is done in a lab to have many embryos (IVF).
c. Five to six days after fertilization, these embryos are analyzed for male or female chromosomes.
d. Analysis can take several days, so the embryos are kept frozen.
e. The embryo with the desired gender will be transferred to the mother’s uterus to continue the pregnancy.
This technique is used more for couples who have history of chromosomal or genetic defects.
It is safe
Highly effective, Success can reach 99%
It is expensive.
2. Sperm sorting with:
– Flow cytometry:
a. After semen sample is collected, this technique separates the X and Y sperm by using fluorescent dyes.
b. As X chromosome is larger than Y chromosome (contain more genetic material), X will absorb more dye, and that will show when it is exposed to UV light.
c. Then the desired sperm will fertilize the egg by artificial insemination or IVF.
a. After semen sample is collected, this technique separates the X and Y sperm by centrifugation (spinning) according to their density. X chromosome is more dense than Y chromosome.
d. Then the desired sperm will fertilize the egg by artificial insemination or IVF.
It is safe
The success rate for male is 82%, for female is 93%. Less effective than the first method.
3. Timing the intercourse according to the ovulation time: (Shettle method)
There is no guarantee for this method, and not based on a scientific evidence.
a. Intercourse when you have already ovulated or about to: 24 hours before ovulation, or within 12 hours after ovulation has a possibility of conceiving a boy.
b. Intercourse 24 hours before ovulation may contribute in conceiving a girl.
c. Vaginal environment and pH can be a factor in determining the gender.
Following a specific diet for two months may help.
higher pH environment favors Y sperm (boy).
Lower pH environment favors X sperm (girl).
Approaching ovulation time, the pH becomes very alkalinic (high pH) and that might increase the chance of conceiving a boy.
d. Orgasm and deep penetration may contribute in conceiving a boy.
e. Shallow penetration and holding back on orgasm may contribute in conceiving a girl.